Cisco software papers

cisco software papers

SD-WAN provides seamless connectivity for multicloud environments. Get a highly secure, cloud-delivered wide-area network that is simple to manage and easy. Cisco IOS XR Software - Investigate the business and technical issues pertaining to a platform, solution, or technology and examine its technical. Cisco SD-WAN also helps you connect and manage multiple branch offices while lowering WAN costs and improving security. The solution provides a secure hybrid. PROFILER IN MYSQL WORKBENCH Паллеты легкие от перегрузка - 60. Пластмассовые банки 0,5 0,3 до л. Ящики пластмассовые розничным колбас, мяса, 1,4 кг, выполняются фруктов течение овощей, бутылок. банки hacking tightvnc 0,3 использования и без живой.

The entire wired, wireless, and WAN network is managed on a single entity. Application visibility eliminates the complexity of managing separate policies for wired and wireless. Enhanced analytics. Cisco SD-Access provides intelligent services for application recognition, traffic analytics, traffic prioritization, and steering. Cisco SD-Access solution components. Figure 1 and Table 2 provide a high-level overview of the components used in the Cisco SD-Access solution. For a more comprehensive review of these components and their respective roles, refer to the Cisco Software- Defined Access Solution Design Guide.

Table 2. Cisco SD-Access components. Cisco DNA Center. SD- Access is enabled with an application package that runs as part of the Cisco DNA Center software for designing, provisioning, applying policy, and facilitating the creation of an intelligent wired and wireless campus network with assurance.

Cisco Identity Services Engine. Cisco ISE is a secure network access platform enabling increased management awareness, control, and consistency for users and devices accessing an organization's network. ISE is an integral part of SD-Access for policy implementation, enabling dynamic mapping of users and devices to scalable groups and simplifying end-to-end security policy enforcement. Fabric border node.

The fabric border nodes serve as the gateway between the SD-Access fabric site and the networks external to the fabric. Control plane node. The control plane database tracks all endpoints in the fabric site and associates the endpoints to fabric nodes, decoupling the endpoint IP address or MAC address from the location closest router in the network.

Fabric edge node. The edge nodes implement a Layer 3 access design with the addition of the following fabric functions:. Endpoint registration. Mapping of user to virtual network. Any cast Layer 3 gateway. LISP forwarding. VXLAN encapsulation and decapsulation. Fabric intermediate node. The fabric intermediate nodes are part of the Layer 3 network used for interconnections among the edge nodes to the border nodes.

Fabric wireless controller. The fabric WLC integrates with the fabric control plane. Both fabric WLCs and. Legacy architecture review. In most secure environments today, customers are operationally required to overlay a secure encrypted network over a nonsecure encrypted network. As with Cisco SD-Access, this is accomplished by using an overlay. IVDs can be configured in a point-to-point configuration or in a hub-and-spoke configuration, as seen in Figure 2.

Most IVDs in use today lack critical features required for DoD networks, such as certain dynamic routing protocols, multicast, etc. Because of these limitations, it is very common to see a secondary overlay implemented. All traffic flows between IVD encrypted sites are encapsulated in GRE, enabling dynamic routing, multicast, and other required features.

This can be seen in the GRE overlay topology in Figure 2. The use of GRE, however, is not without its challenges. In many instances secure networks are being extended on a campus LAN to a small set of users. Under normal circumstances a switch would suffice, but when using IVDs this extension would require a switch and router.

A router is often required due to no or limited GRE capability on most industry switches. This leads to increased CapEx and operational complexity, as even a simple LAN extension requires a router. Scale can also be a challenge when using GRE in this manner.

This encapsulation eliminates the need for a manually built GRE tunnel overlay. As a result, OpEx is reduced greatly by eliminating the manual configuration of GRE tunnels between each of the routing elements, including the necessary routing protocol creation over the GRE tunnels more state on the routers.

In addition, since SD-Access encapsulation works by forwarding traffic between a source and destination IP address, no additional configuration is required in the IVD underlay. The use of SD-Access also creates the opportunity to arbitrarily add VNs without any additional configuration of the tunneling technology. Since using these features requires knowledge of how SD-Access encapsulates traffic, a review of the related terms is necessary. VN: Virtual network. LISP separates a location from an identification on the network by using two separate identifiers for an entity.

To send traffic to a certain network, you need to send the traffic only to its corresponding RLOC address. For the purposes of this design, every router has both roles and thus is an xTR. Any traffic destined to those services will be encapsulated and sent to the PxTR for processing.

This allows networks to cross Layer 3 boundaries, which is crucial to SD-Access. Network design recommendation. This paper also serves as a solution to the often-required use of a router configured with GRE to extend campus switching between buildings when IVDs are used.

With SD-Access technologies, the switch is functioning as both an access switch, with Switched Virtual Interfaces SVIs for various segments, as well as a router, by forwarding traffic throughout the campus fabric using the native SD-Access forwarding. This is accomplished through the following steps:.

Step 1. This enables Proxy-xTR functionality on the border nodes, allowing them to encapsulate and decapsulate traffic between the fabric and external networks. Step 2. CLI commands depicted in steps 3 and 4 are for informational purposes only. Step 3. For this to occur, routes are redistributed from the networks outside of the fabric into the LISP database, allowing the control plane to answer queries for those routes and direct traffic appropriately.

We strongly recommend using route filtering to control the flow of routing information and prevent loop formation. Step 4. We do this by adding the following line under the LISP configuration:. Step 5. Example: ip route 0. Since VXLAN and GRE are both tunneling technologies, in both cases the size of the packet containing the tunneled traffic will be more than bytes. This can also be done on the SVIs created on the border node to prevent fragmentation of traffic destined for hosts within the fabric.

Configuration of IVDs is out of the scope of this document, but there are some recommendations. Since IVDs cannot be configured automatically, static routing must be used to ensure reachability between the various RLOC addresses in the fabric. Additionally, each fabric device will require static routing to reach the other RLOCs in the fabric. Routes can be summarized from fabric edge nodes to other fabric edge nodes, but not to the border or control plane nodes.

Because the same IP address is used on the fabric edge switch for both management and traffic sourcing, the RLOC addresses are no longer locally significant and must be reachable by the rest of the network. An Internet-enabled HD television that draws couple - three hours of content per day from the Internet would generate as much Internet traffic as an entire household today, on an average. Video effect of the devices on traffic is more pronounced because of the introduction of Ultra-High-Definition UHD , or 4K, video streaming.

This technology has such an effect because the bit rate for 4K video at about 15 to 18 Mbps is more than double the HD video bit rate and nine times more than Standard-Definition SD video bit rate. We estimate that by , two-thirds 66 percent of the installed flat-panel TV sets will be UHD, up from 33 percent in Figure 3.

M2M applications across many industries accelerate IoT growth. Internet of Things IoT have become a prevalent system in which people, processes, data, and things connect to the Internet and each other. Globally, M2M connections will grow 2. There will be 1. Connected home applications, such as home automation, home security and video surveillance, connected white goods, and tracking applications, will represent 48 percent, or nearly half, of the total M2M connections by , showing the pervasiveness of M2M in our lives Figure 5.

Connected car applications such as fleet management, in-vehicle entertainment systems, emergency calling, Internet, vehicle diagnostics and navigation etc. Connected cities applications will have the second-fastest growth, at 26 percent CAGR. While traditionally the traffic from M2M connections has been less than that from the end user devices such as smartphones, TV sets and PCs, we estimate that the amount of traffic is growing faster than the number of connections because of the increase of deployment of video applications on M2M connections and the increased use of applications, such as telemedicine and smart car navigation systems, which require greater bandwidth and lower latency.

Globally, the total number of mobile subscribers those subscribing to a cellular service is going to grow from 5. Relative to the growth in Internet users we see slow down occurring in the mobile subscriber growth — this is primarily as the penetration levels have already crossed 60 percent range. While there are regional differences in the mobile subscriber penetration of the regional population Table 3 , the range of variations is much smaller relative to the overall Internet users that we saw in the previous analysis.

While the region with the highest adoption throughout the forecast period is North America, followed by Western Europe, the fastest growth is going to occur in Middle East and Africa at 4 percent CAGR from to While the adoption rates for mobile above 60 percent of the population in are already quite high across all regions, we do see that Middle East and Africa has a bit of catch up to do and that is reflected in higher growth rates relative to other regions.

Table 3. Mobile subscribers as a percentage of regional population. The ever-changing mix and growth of wireless devices that are accessing mobile networks worldwide is one of the primary contributors to global mobile traffic growth. Each year several new devices in different form factors and increased capabilities and intelligence are introduced in the market. In the last couple of years, we have seen a rise of phablets and more recently we have seen many new M2M connections coming into the mix.

There were 8. By , there will be 8. Regionally, North America and Western Europe are going to have the fastest growth in mobile devices and connections with 16 percent and 11 percent CAGR from to , respectively. We see a rapid decline in the share of non-smartphones from 27 percent in 2. Another significant trend is the growth of smartphones including phablets from 4.

Even though smartphones are growing absolutely, the relative share is declining from 56 percent in to 51 percent by This is because of the most noticeable growth in M2M connections. M2M mobile connections will cross over a third 34 percent of total devices and connections by Along with the overall growth in the number of mobile devices and connections, there is clearly a visible shift in the device mix.

Mobile devices are evolving from lower-generation network connectivity 2G to higher-generation network connectivity 3G, 3. Combining device capabilities with faster, higher bandwidth and more intelligent networks will facilitate broad experimentation and adoption of advanced multimedia applications that contribute to increased mobile and Wi-Fi traffic.

The explosion of mobile applications and the expanded reach of mobile connectivity to a growing number of end users has prompted the need for optimized bandwidth management and new network monetization models to sustain a maturing mobile industry. In a highly competitive mobile market, we have seen the growth of global 4G deployments as well as early-stage 5G implementations.

The global mobile 4G connections will grow from 3. Starting this year, we are combining our analysis of 2G and 3G into 3G and below category as the lack of source data has made it difficult to split the two categories. This type of ultra-narrowband wireless network connectivity is meant specifically for M2M modules that require low bandwidth and wide geographic coverage. It provides high coverage with low power consumption, module, and connectivity costs, thereby creating new M2M use cases for Mobile Network Operators MNOs that cellular networks alone could not have addressed.

Examples include utility meters in residential basements, gas or water meters that do not have power connection, streetlights, and pet or personal asset trackers. This transition from 3G and below to 4G and now 5G deployment is a global trend Table 4. By , North America will be the region with highest share of connections on 5G at 17 percent.

Table 4. Mobile connections by network type — regional percentage share. The top three 5G countries in terms of percent of devices and connections share on 5G will be China The phenomenal growth in mobile end-user devices and M2M connections is a clear indicator of the growth of mobile IoT, which is bringing together people, processes, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable.

Globally, mobile M2M connections will grow from 1. Figure 9. With advances and ratifications in Wi-Fi standards, dense environments with many concurrently connecting devices and IoT connections such as airports, public transportation, retail, healthcare, smart cities, stadiums etc. Globally, there will be nearly million public Wi-Fi hotspots by , up from million hotspots in , a fourfold increase. By , Asia Pacific will have the highest share of global public Wi-Fi hotspots at 46 percent.

Public Wi-Fi along with community hotspots are included in the forecast. Community hotspots or homespots have emerged as a potentially significant element of the public Wi-Fi landscape. In this model, subscribers allow part of the capacity of their residential gateway to be open to casual use. The homespots may be provided by a broadband or other provider directly or through a partner.

Asia Pacific will lead in adoption of homespots. By , China will lead in total number of homespots, followed by the United States and Japan. Retail establishments will have the highest number of hotspots by globally, and the fastest growth is in healthcare facilities hospitals , where hotspots will triple over the forecast period. The primary objective of Wi-Fi in hospitals is to improve the delivery of healthcare services and staff productivity, with a secondary benefit being Internet access for patients, their families, and their guests.

Integral to these verticals and looking into the future are the game-changing IoT devices and connections. According to the WBA Alliance, there is a need to find a dynamic way for IoT devices to search for a computable network and automatically roam between Wi-Fi and mobile networks at scale without intervention. Additionally, interest in data analytics and recommendation engines resulting in Wi-Fi advertising and location services is growing as service providers search for new ways to monetize Wi-Fi and generate new revenue streams.

Critical enablers of Hotspot 2. The prevalence of IEEE By , IEEE The latest It will enable dense IoT deployments. Wi-Fi has a powerful role to play alongside other small cell technologies in delivering key use cases going forward in the 5G Era.

Effects of accelerating speeds on traffic growth. Broadband speed is a crucial enabler of IP traffic. Broadband-speed improvements result in increased consumption and use of high-bandwidth content and applications. The global average broadband speed continues to grow and will more than double from to , from Table 5 shows the projected broadband speeds from to Several factors influence the fixed broadband-speed forecast, including the deployment and adoption of Fiber-To-The-Home FTTH , high-speed DSL, and cable broadband adoption, as well as overall broadband penetration.

Among the countries covered by this study, Japan, South Korea, and Sweden lead in terms of broadband speed largely because of their wide deployment of FTTH. Table 5. Fixed broadband speeds in Mbps , — Consider how long it takes to download an HD movie at these speeds: at 10 Mbps, it takes 20 minutes; at 25 Mbps, it takes 9 minutes; but at Mbps, it takes only 2 minutes.

High-bandwidth speeds will be essential to support consumer cloud storage, making the download of large multimedia files as fast as a transfer from a hard drive. Table 6 shows the percentage of broadband connections that will be faster than 10 Mbps 96 percent by , 25 Mbps 88 percent by , and Mbps 39 percent by by region. Table 6. Broadband speed greater than 10 Mbps, — Several countries also have users that currently experience greater than Mbps, paving the path for the future demands of video.

Globally, the average mobile network connection speed in was The average speed will more than triple and will be Anecdotal evidence supports the idea that overall use increases when speed increases, although there is often a delay between the increase in speed and the increased use, which can range from a few months to several years. The reverse can also be true with the burstiness associated with the adoption of wild card applications with IoT, VR and AR, cloud gaming on tablets and smartphones, where there is a delay in experiencing the speeds that the devices can support.

Table 7. Average mobile network connection speeds in Mbps by region and country. Global speed: All handsets. Forward projections for mobile data speeds are based on third-party forecasts for the relative proportions of 2G, 3G, 3. A crucial factor promoting the increase in mobile speeds over the forecast period is the increasing proportion of 4G mobile connections and the rise of 5G connections. The effect of 4G and 5G connections on traffic is significant, because they contribute to a disproportionate amount of mobile data traffic.

Globally, Wi-Fi connection speeds originated from dual-mode mobile devices will triple by The average Wi-Fi network connection speed Asia Pacific will experience the highest Wi-Fi speeds, Wi-Fi speeds inherently depend on the quality of the broadband connection to the premises.

The latest standards, Wi-Fi6 and Wi-Fi 5, are considered to be a true wired complement and can enable higher definition video streaming and services that require higher data rates. Also, an important factor in the use of Wi-Fi technology is the number and availability of hotspots. Table 8. Projected average Wi-Fi network connection speeds in Mbps by region and country. An increasing number of service providers worldwide are moving from unlimited data plans to tiered mobile data packages.

To make an estimate of the impact of tiered pricing on traffic growth, we repeated a case study based on the data of several tier 1 and tier 2 North American service providers. The study tracks data usage from the time frame of the introduction of tiered pricing 7 years ago. This firm maintains a panel of volunteer participants who have provided their mobile bill details including GB of data usage.

The data in this study reflects usage associated with devices from January and May and also refers to the study from the previous update for longer-term trends. The overall study spans 7 years. The results of the study represent actual data from a few tier 1 and tier 2 mobile data operators from North American markets, global forecasts that include emerging markets and more providers may lead to varied estimates.

The usage per month of the average top 1 percent of mobile data users has been steadily decreasing compared to that of overall usage. At the beginning of the 7-year study, 52 percent of the traffic was generated by the top 1 percent. With the reintroductions and promotions of unlimited plans by tier 2 operators in the study, the top 1 percent generated 18 percent of the overall traffic per month by June By May , just 5 percent of the traffic was generated by the top 1 percent of users.

Average mobile data consumption per line is decreasing as the number of lines increase. Users expect their online experience to be always available and always secure—and their personal and business assets to be safe. The last several years have been easily the most eventful period from a security threat perspective, with many serious data breaches that have been discussed widely in the media.

Given the scope of the monetary and brand damage associated with data breaches, cybersecurity is treated as a business risk rather than merely an IT issue. Advances in technology is the main driver for economic growth but has also led to a higher incidence of cyberattacks. The leading trends such as ecommerce, mobile payments, cloud computing, Big Data and analytics, IoT, AI, machine learning, and social media, all increase cyber risk for users and businesses.

Compounding the problem, the nature of the threats is becoming more diverse. The list includes Distributed Denial-of-Service DDoS , ransomware, Advanced Persistent Threats APTs , viruses, worms, malware, spyware, botnets, spam, spoofing, phishing, hacktivism and potential state-sanctioned cyberwarfare. There were a total of 1, breaches with a total of nearly million records exposed as of the month of November in The number of records exposed per data breach averaged , year-to-date in , according to Identity Theft Resource Center, with the highest number of breaches in the banking category and the healthcare industry experienced the breach of the highest percentage of sensitive records.

Cloud and digital transformation increased the total cost of a data breach. Extensive cloud migration, use of mobile platforms, and IoT devices were all significant cost increase drivers. A Distributed-Denial-of-Service DDoS attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers.

Such an attack is often the result of multiple compromised systems flooding the targeted system with traffic. DDoS attacks represent the dominant threat observed by most service providers. Infrastructure outages also continue to be a threat with over half of operators experiencing this issue.

Amplification attackers, who have tools for carrying out a DDoS attack, exploit vulnerabilities in the network and compute resources. Security vendors continue to make sure these attacks are financially unviable for the cybercriminals. Next-generation applications. With the many millions of users and devices connecting to the network, faster speeds and connectivity and the multiple technological advancements in the architecture next-generation applications which have extremely complex requirements are and will become more the norm.

And with the many next-generation applications being created new models of business are being created as well. Artificial intelligence and machine learning and many other applications are now taking advantage of the digital transformation which is very much underway and creating new models of business and impacting various industries.

Take the music industry for example - Watson BEAT helped create a better soundtrack than an original composition with the help of a cognitive machine. Or the Healthcare industry, where applications like Infervision use Artificial Intelligence and Deep learning and work in conjunction with radiologists to diagnose lung cancer faster.

Another example of a next-generation application is predictive analytics which involves using advanced analytic techniques that leverage historical data to uncover real-time insights and to predict future events. Predictive analytics can help transform the way a business operates and can be used for many Industrial IoT solutions - using sensor data to predict equipment failure, weather patterns, crop rotation and yield predictions and various other impacts on agriculture and the food industry and many other IoT solutions.

Applications such as reinforcement learning have revolutionized the automotive industry with creating autonomous driving cars and the financial services industry with new ways of portfolio management. New next-generation applications and their rapidly evolving used cases and real-life examples are being built everyday - the most successful of which will involve shifting technologies and evolving business models.

Social media, gaming and business applications will drive volume. Asia Pacific will have the highest percentage Across virtually every business sector, there is an increased demand for new or enhanced applications that increase workforce productivity or improve customer experiences.

IT departments are often challenged to transform infrastructures to accommodate new technologies. The Internet of Things IoT , Artificial Intelligence AI , Machine Learning ML , and business analytics are changing how developers build smart applications to simplify customer transactions and deliver new business insights.

Many enterprises have adopted multicloud strategies with unified management solutions to support microservices and containerized applications at the network edge. With a wide variety of Software-as-a-Service SaaS options, it is now possible to build intelligent business platforms that seamlessly connect applications, integrate IoT solutions, and enable customizable big data analyses. Enterprise, commercial, and consumer applications can all be reimagined with the appropriate infrastructure and the right partner to help you architect your purpose-built solution.

What role does AI play in delivering new insights and business intelligence from your apps? AI platforms and applications are enabling enterprise application developers to leverage ML capabilities to provide enhanced accuracy, user experience, efficiency, and capabilities.

AI is projected to be utilized everywhere from edge to core to cloud. Technology providers should continue to partner and support rapid deployment, interoperability, and standardization of AI solutions. Recommended action: The role of AI in enterprises is changing how your customers buy, your suppliers deliver, and your competitors compete.

You will need to deploy AI-optimized and AI-scalable solutions, ranging from bundles for specific markets to best-of-breed packages. Can edge networks optimize your business and IoT applications? According to our analysis, IoT devices will account for 50 percent Device manufacturers, business intelligence software firms, mobile carriers, systems integrators, and infrastructure vendors will all play unique but complementary roles across the IoT landscape.

Edge networks and computing allow enterprise architectures to optimize processing for business-critical analysis of data sets from IoT applications and communications. Low-latency real-time communications and high-definition video applications will leverage the multi-access edge enabled by 5G and Wi-Fi 6. Recommended action: IoT applications are diverse and can be complex.

You should explore mobile connectivity options and determine the best approach for your IoT initiatives. Assess your need for geographic coverage. In the longer term, prepare to shift your focus from managing connectivity to managing data across your IoT applications. For many organizations, containerized applications and microservices are providing the flexibility and resiliency needed to keep pace with technology innovations and competitive business pressures.

By , microservices architectures will support 90 percent of all applications—improving the ability to design, debug, update, and leverage third-party code according to IDC. Microservices and application containerization provide independent operation scalability, unparalleled system availability, and rapid new service launches without massive reconfigurations.

Recommended action: We live in a multicloud world public, private, and hybrid. Your business needs to develop a multicloud strategy to enhance and extend its application capabilities to meet new competitive challenges. Your digital transformation can only happen when architectures and operations are simplified with the aid of microservices and containerization.

One of the biggest issues for network managers is the growth of IT costs for network operations. Unfortunately, up to 95 percent of network changes are still performed manually, resulting in operational costs two to three times higher than the cost of the network. Increased IT automation, centrally and remotely managed, is essential for businesses to keep pace in the digital world.

Proven innovations like software-defined networking, intelligent network edge enhancements, and unified domain controls and policies can help your organization achieve greater IT efficiency, consistency, and service quality. Organizations need continuous, automated network monitoring and optimization to support increasingly dynamic and digitally driven business models.

Software-driven networks can accommodate these desired capabilities and create infrastructures that are flexible and programmable for changing business needs. Software-Defined Networks SDNs abstract the control plane from the forwarding plane, making the network more adaptable to the dynamic traffic demands of the business.

In addition to SDN, policy-based automation and Intent-Based Networking IBN are also very important to meet the business needs of agility, portability, and scalability. Additionally, network automation 25 percent , SDN 23 percent , and IBN 16 percent are among the technologies that will have the most impact on networking over the next five years.

Source: Global Networking Trends Report. In response to this trend, IBN provides more intelligence and autonomy. IBN solutions can translate and maintain declarative intent through every networking phase— provisioning, deployment, management, troubleshooting, and remediation. Edge computing brings high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources closer to users and devices than ever before.

The goals of this approach include lowering the cost of data transport and decreasing latency. There are various use cases driving the business need for greater edge compute capabilities. Enterprises are shifting their orchestration and management capabilities to be more function or location specific. Service providers are using their telecom edge to deliver external services to enterprise clients.

The enterprise edge is IT heavy and usually includes locations that were previously classified as remote offices and branch offices without data center facilities. Recommended action: The addition of billions of devices to the network edge drives the need for enterprises to manage and analyze data from IoT endpoints. Shifting traffic from the network core to the edge affects computing and communications architectures. Before you add edge computing capabilities, focus on making your overall IT infrastructure more efficient, more manageable, and better performing.

Does your organization have a comprehensive plan to capitalize on the promise of 5G?

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We have arranged further details regarding Cisco Model Papers in the below table. Hence, the students need to check and prepare for the Cisco Placement Test to score more marks. Cisco conducts the Recruitments and Campus Drives to hire talented contenders for various positions. Generally, Cisco will conduct the selection procedure to recruit the aspirants. So, the postulates need to know the selection process before attending the drive.

The previous papers are most useful for individuals to know the various types of questions repeatedly asked in the examination. By this, the competitors can know the test pattern entirely. Hence, we suggest the individuals prepare well for the written test by using the stuff.

The current article includes a vast number of collections of Cisco Placement Papers. Many of the contenders are searching for the Cisco Model Papers at various websites. So, the contenders who are about to start the preparation for the Cisco Written Test can check this article.

At the last of this post, the candidates can find the links to download the Cisco Model Placement Papers. We all know that most of the people had applied for Cisco Recruitment and all are waiting can take a look. To clear the online test, the students need to practice the Cisco Previous Papers without fail. For the applied aspirants, Cisco will conduct the selection process. All the hopefuls need to participate in the online test as a first round.

Students who will secure qualifying marks in the written test will call for a technical interview. In this, the officials will check the technical knowledge of the students. Lastly, an HR round will be conducted for the candidates. To know more information about the test pattern and the topics the candidates can visit our web portal.

Table 6 shows the percentage of broadband connections that will be faster than 10 Mbps 96 percent by , 25 Mbps 88 percent by , and Mbps 39 percent by by region. Table 6. Broadband speed greater than 10 Mbps, — Several countries also have users that currently experience greater than Mbps, paving the path for the future demands of video. Globally, the average mobile network connection speed in was The average speed will more than triple and will be Anecdotal evidence supports the idea that overall use increases when speed increases, although there is often a delay between the increase in speed and the increased use, which can range from a few months to several years.

The reverse can also be true with the burstiness associated with the adoption of wild card applications with IoT, VR and AR, cloud gaming on tablets and smartphones, where there is a delay in experiencing the speeds that the devices can support. Table 7. Average mobile network connection speeds in Mbps by region and country.

Global speed: All handsets. Forward projections for mobile data speeds are based on third-party forecasts for the relative proportions of 2G, 3G, 3. A crucial factor promoting the increase in mobile speeds over the forecast period is the increasing proportion of 4G mobile connections and the rise of 5G connections. The effect of 4G and 5G connections on traffic is significant, because they contribute to a disproportionate amount of mobile data traffic. Globally, Wi-Fi connection speeds originated from dual-mode mobile devices will triple by The average Wi-Fi network connection speed Asia Pacific will experience the highest Wi-Fi speeds, Wi-Fi speeds inherently depend on the quality of the broadband connection to the premises.

The latest standards, Wi-Fi6 and Wi-Fi 5, are considered to be a true wired complement and can enable higher definition video streaming and services that require higher data rates. Also, an important factor in the use of Wi-Fi technology is the number and availability of hotspots. Table 8. Projected average Wi-Fi network connection speeds in Mbps by region and country. An increasing number of service providers worldwide are moving from unlimited data plans to tiered mobile data packages.

To make an estimate of the impact of tiered pricing on traffic growth, we repeated a case study based on the data of several tier 1 and tier 2 North American service providers. The study tracks data usage from the time frame of the introduction of tiered pricing 7 years ago. This firm maintains a panel of volunteer participants who have provided their mobile bill details including GB of data usage.

The data in this study reflects usage associated with devices from January and May and also refers to the study from the previous update for longer-term trends. The overall study spans 7 years. The results of the study represent actual data from a few tier 1 and tier 2 mobile data operators from North American markets, global forecasts that include emerging markets and more providers may lead to varied estimates.

The usage per month of the average top 1 percent of mobile data users has been steadily decreasing compared to that of overall usage. At the beginning of the 7-year study, 52 percent of the traffic was generated by the top 1 percent. With the reintroductions and promotions of unlimited plans by tier 2 operators in the study, the top 1 percent generated 18 percent of the overall traffic per month by June By May , just 5 percent of the traffic was generated by the top 1 percent of users.

Average mobile data consumption per line is decreasing as the number of lines increase. Users expect their online experience to be always available and always secure—and their personal and business assets to be safe. The last several years have been easily the most eventful period from a security threat perspective, with many serious data breaches that have been discussed widely in the media. Given the scope of the monetary and brand damage associated with data breaches, cybersecurity is treated as a business risk rather than merely an IT issue.

Advances in technology is the main driver for economic growth but has also led to a higher incidence of cyberattacks. The leading trends such as ecommerce, mobile payments, cloud computing, Big Data and analytics, IoT, AI, machine learning, and social media, all increase cyber risk for users and businesses.

Compounding the problem, the nature of the threats is becoming more diverse. The list includes Distributed Denial-of-Service DDoS , ransomware, Advanced Persistent Threats APTs , viruses, worms, malware, spyware, botnets, spam, spoofing, phishing, hacktivism and potential state-sanctioned cyberwarfare. There were a total of 1, breaches with a total of nearly million records exposed as of the month of November in The number of records exposed per data breach averaged , year-to-date in , according to Identity Theft Resource Center, with the highest number of breaches in the banking category and the healthcare industry experienced the breach of the highest percentage of sensitive records.

Cloud and digital transformation increased the total cost of a data breach. Extensive cloud migration, use of mobile platforms, and IoT devices were all significant cost increase drivers. A Distributed-Denial-of-Service DDoS attack occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. Such an attack is often the result of multiple compromised systems flooding the targeted system with traffic.

DDoS attacks represent the dominant threat observed by most service providers. Infrastructure outages also continue to be a threat with over half of operators experiencing this issue. Amplification attackers, who have tools for carrying out a DDoS attack, exploit vulnerabilities in the network and compute resources. Security vendors continue to make sure these attacks are financially unviable for the cybercriminals. Next-generation applications. With the many millions of users and devices connecting to the network, faster speeds and connectivity and the multiple technological advancements in the architecture next-generation applications which have extremely complex requirements are and will become more the norm.

And with the many next-generation applications being created new models of business are being created as well. Artificial intelligence and machine learning and many other applications are now taking advantage of the digital transformation which is very much underway and creating new models of business and impacting various industries.

Take the music industry for example - Watson BEAT helped create a better soundtrack than an original composition with the help of a cognitive machine. Or the Healthcare industry, where applications like Infervision use Artificial Intelligence and Deep learning and work in conjunction with radiologists to diagnose lung cancer faster. Another example of a next-generation application is predictive analytics which involves using advanced analytic techniques that leverage historical data to uncover real-time insights and to predict future events.

Predictive analytics can help transform the way a business operates and can be used for many Industrial IoT solutions - using sensor data to predict equipment failure, weather patterns, crop rotation and yield predictions and various other impacts on agriculture and the food industry and many other IoT solutions. Applications such as reinforcement learning have revolutionized the automotive industry with creating autonomous driving cars and the financial services industry with new ways of portfolio management.

New next-generation applications and their rapidly evolving used cases and real-life examples are being built everyday - the most successful of which will involve shifting technologies and evolving business models. Social media, gaming and business applications will drive volume. Asia Pacific will have the highest percentage Across virtually every business sector, there is an increased demand for new or enhanced applications that increase workforce productivity or improve customer experiences.

IT departments are often challenged to transform infrastructures to accommodate new technologies. The Internet of Things IoT , Artificial Intelligence AI , Machine Learning ML , and business analytics are changing how developers build smart applications to simplify customer transactions and deliver new business insights. Many enterprises have adopted multicloud strategies with unified management solutions to support microservices and containerized applications at the network edge.

With a wide variety of Software-as-a-Service SaaS options, it is now possible to build intelligent business platforms that seamlessly connect applications, integrate IoT solutions, and enable customizable big data analyses. Enterprise, commercial, and consumer applications can all be reimagined with the appropriate infrastructure and the right partner to help you architect your purpose-built solution.

What role does AI play in delivering new insights and business intelligence from your apps? AI platforms and applications are enabling enterprise application developers to leverage ML capabilities to provide enhanced accuracy, user experience, efficiency, and capabilities.

AI is projected to be utilized everywhere from edge to core to cloud. Technology providers should continue to partner and support rapid deployment, interoperability, and standardization of AI solutions. Recommended action: The role of AI in enterprises is changing how your customers buy, your suppliers deliver, and your competitors compete.

You will need to deploy AI-optimized and AI-scalable solutions, ranging from bundles for specific markets to best-of-breed packages. Can edge networks optimize your business and IoT applications? According to our analysis, IoT devices will account for 50 percent Device manufacturers, business intelligence software firms, mobile carriers, systems integrators, and infrastructure vendors will all play unique but complementary roles across the IoT landscape.

Edge networks and computing allow enterprise architectures to optimize processing for business-critical analysis of data sets from IoT applications and communications. Low-latency real-time communications and high-definition video applications will leverage the multi-access edge enabled by 5G and Wi-Fi 6.

Recommended action: IoT applications are diverse and can be complex. You should explore mobile connectivity options and determine the best approach for your IoT initiatives. Assess your need for geographic coverage. In the longer term, prepare to shift your focus from managing connectivity to managing data across your IoT applications. For many organizations, containerized applications and microservices are providing the flexibility and resiliency needed to keep pace with technology innovations and competitive business pressures.

By , microservices architectures will support 90 percent of all applications—improving the ability to design, debug, update, and leverage third-party code according to IDC. Microservices and application containerization provide independent operation scalability, unparalleled system availability, and rapid new service launches without massive reconfigurations.

Recommended action: We live in a multicloud world public, private, and hybrid. Your business needs to develop a multicloud strategy to enhance and extend its application capabilities to meet new competitive challenges. Your digital transformation can only happen when architectures and operations are simplified with the aid of microservices and containerization.

One of the biggest issues for network managers is the growth of IT costs for network operations. Unfortunately, up to 95 percent of network changes are still performed manually, resulting in operational costs two to three times higher than the cost of the network. Increased IT automation, centrally and remotely managed, is essential for businesses to keep pace in the digital world. Proven innovations like software-defined networking, intelligent network edge enhancements, and unified domain controls and policies can help your organization achieve greater IT efficiency, consistency, and service quality.

Organizations need continuous, automated network monitoring and optimization to support increasingly dynamic and digitally driven business models. Software-driven networks can accommodate these desired capabilities and create infrastructures that are flexible and programmable for changing business needs. Software-Defined Networks SDNs abstract the control plane from the forwarding plane, making the network more adaptable to the dynamic traffic demands of the business.

In addition to SDN, policy-based automation and Intent-Based Networking IBN are also very important to meet the business needs of agility, portability, and scalability. Additionally, network automation 25 percent , SDN 23 percent , and IBN 16 percent are among the technologies that will have the most impact on networking over the next five years.

Source: Global Networking Trends Report. In response to this trend, IBN provides more intelligence and autonomy. IBN solutions can translate and maintain declarative intent through every networking phase— provisioning, deployment, management, troubleshooting, and remediation. Edge computing brings high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources closer to users and devices than ever before. The goals of this approach include lowering the cost of data transport and decreasing latency.

There are various use cases driving the business need for greater edge compute capabilities. Enterprises are shifting their orchestration and management capabilities to be more function or location specific. Service providers are using their telecom edge to deliver external services to enterprise clients. The enterprise edge is IT heavy and usually includes locations that were previously classified as remote offices and branch offices without data center facilities.

Recommended action: The addition of billions of devices to the network edge drives the need for enterprises to manage and analyze data from IoT endpoints. Shifting traffic from the network core to the edge affects computing and communications architectures. Before you add edge computing capabilities, focus on making your overall IT infrastructure more efficient, more manageable, and better performing. Does your organization have a comprehensive plan to capitalize on the promise of 5G? The advent of 5G offers unprecedented opportunities for Mobile Network Operators MNOs to provide differentiated services to enterprises.

According to a survey of global IT leaders and service providers, 5G is expected to have a significant impact on many business segments. Today, enterprises want more than just bandwidth. They want to be able to extend the control of their network to the carrier network.

Recommended action: Your business needs to develop a unified domain management strategy that addresses identity and access management, security, and segmentation. Ideally, your solution should allow you to manage all enterprise endpoints from a single dashboard and flexibly provision access policies for licensed and unlicensed endpoints.

Secure Devices, Connections, Network and Data. Cybersecurity should be a top priority for everyone who uses the Internet for business and personal activities. Protecting your assets encompasses an ever-expanding digital landscape. Globally, there will be About half of those connections will support a wide variety of Internet of Things IoT applications You also need the right partner to help you identify and remediate breaches quickly when unauthorized events occur.

Some criminals can log in rather than break in. Your security policy needs to strike the right balance between data protection and ease of use. An effective cybersecurity approach should give the right people access but not hinder authorized users with a clunky user authentication experience. Another 29 percent said they will be GDPR ready within a year, leaving 9 percent who said it would take more than a year to get ready. While the GDPR applies to businesses in the EU or to the processing of personal data collected about individuals located in the EU, only 3 percent of respondents in the global survey indicated that they did not believe the GDPR applied to their organization.

Recommended action: The top challenges to getting ready for the GDPR were identified as data security, employee training, and keeping up with the evolving regulations. Data privacy has become a board- level issue for many organizations, and customers are making sure their vendors and business partners have adequate answers to their privacy concerns before working together. Over the past year, what was the financial impact of the biggest security breach to your organization?

There is a clear shift toward issues of perception and sentiment. Recommended action: All employees within an organization, especially those involved in security, should be extremely knowledgeable about incident response. Unfortunately, only 75 percent of Cisco survey respondents indicated that they knew what to do after a security breach.

IT infrastructures are growing in complexity—accommodating more, and more diverse, end-user devices and Internet of Things IoT connections. This digital transformation requires more distributed and intelligent edge network capabilities with constantly evolving security. To achieve business agility a top priority for businesses of all sizes , empowering global workforces with the right tools is a must.

Automation, collaboration, and mobility are essential for managing IT complexity and new customer expectations and demands. What are your main objectives for implementing a network automation strategy? The primary objective of network teams is to continuously deliver application and service performance and protection for the business.

Network automation is the process of automating the configuration, management, testing, deployment, and operation of physical and virtual networks. According to a Capgemini survey where the top two objectives driving automation initiatives were ranked , nearly 40 percent of the organizations implementing automation initiatives are doing so to improve workforce productivity.

Recommended action: According to Gartner, approximately 70 percent of data center networking tasks are performed manually, which increases time, cost, and the likelihood of errors, and reduces flexibility. Automation can improve network availability and relieve teams from time-consuming repetitive tasks, freeing them up for higher-value-add activities.

UCC has become a mainstream productivity tool for many organizations based on how widely it has been adopted and used for business communications and collaboration. Nearly 75 percent of businesses are either using UCC or plan to do so within one year. UCC solutions can also lead to quicker and more innovative problem solving for business processes and customer interactions.

What role does wireless networking play in empowering your workforce? Mobility is another important tool for empowering your workforce. Business users expect high-performance connectivity anywhere, anytime, on any device via Wi-Fi or cellular networks. Additionally, wireless IoT devices are becoming more ubiquitous in many business sectors manufacturing, healthcare, logistics, etc.

This wave of IoT applications dramatically changes wireless networking requirements in terms of scale, traffic patterns and volumes, and security. Ongoing mobile innovations will be required to support massive IoT connection density as well as highly interactive and tactile applications. Recommended action: Your business needs to develop a mobile strategy with policies to empower your teams and protect their assets and data.

Emerging capabilities such as Open Roaming will provide seamless, always-on, and secure global roaming between different Wi-Fi 6 networks and public 5G networks. Summary: Multi-domain innovation and integration redefines the Internet. By integrating these formerly distinct and siloed domains, IT can reduce complexity, increase agility, and improve security.

The future of the Internet will establish new connectivity requirements and service assurance levels for users, personal devices and IoT nodes, all applications consumer and business , via any network access type fixed broadband, Wi-Fi, and cellular with dynamic security. Through our research and analysis, we anticipate innovation and growth in the following strategic areas.

Applications: Across virtually every business sector, there is an increased demand for new or enhanced applications that improve customer experiences. The Internet of Things IoT , Artificial Intelligence AI , Machine Learning ML and business analytics are changing how developers build smart applications to simplify customer transactions and deliver new business insights.

Businesses and service organizations need to understand evolving demands and deliver exceptional customer experiences by leveraging technology. Service providers and enterprises are exploring software-defined everything, as well as intent-driven and context-powered infrastructures that are designed to support future application needs and flexibility. Security: Cybersecurity is a top priority for all who rely on the Internet for business and personal online activities.

Protect every surface, detect fast and remediate confidently. Protecting digital assets and content encompasses an ever-expanding digital landscape. Empowering employees and teams: To achieve business agility and prepare employees for the future, empowering global workforces with the right tools is a must. Automation, collaboration and mobility are essential for managing IT complexity and new customer expectations and demands.

Business teams, partners and groups in all types of organizations need to collaborate seamlessly across all application mediums that are relevant to various roles and responsibilities. Employees and teams need accurate and actionable data to solve problems and create new growth strategies. The number of consumer fixed Internet users is not taken directly from an analyst source — it is estimated from analyst forecasts for consumer broadband connections, data on hotspot users, mobile-only users estimates, business-only users estimates from a variety of sources, and population forecasts from the United Nations.

All of the components are together validated against what is deemed reasonable population penetration at a country level reported or estimated. Our devices and connections methodology include installment data and sometimes shipment data from third-party analyst firms, applying our own analysis on converting the latter to an installed base, estimating country level distributions, network connectivity splits and de-duplicating for a unique count. The projections for mobile application downloads are determined from a myriad of publicly available and syndicated sources, customized for the regions and countries within the report.

Several factors influence the fixed and Wi-Fi broadband-speed forecast, including the deployment and adoption of fiber, high-speed DSL, cable broadband adoption, Wi-Fi6 and Wi-Fi 5 technologies as well as overall broadband penetration. For the mobile speeds forecast, 4G and 5G deployments both sub 6 GHz and millimeter mm wave frequency , penetration of higher resolution dual mode devices smartphones, tablets etc.

We also analyze over 80 million speed test records looking at average and median speeds as a part of this study. In getting more focused on future tactile Internet applications, the online Cisco Internet readiness tool provides a sample set of business and consumer cloud services that users are accessing—and provide an understanding of the network requirements associated with those services.

We cross reference the application requirements with several fundamental characteristics: average download speed, average upload speed, and average network latency based on millions of end user speed test records. Statistical modeling is then applied to create the projections. The forecast relies on analyst projections for Internet users, broadband connections, video subscribers, mobile connections, and Internet application adoption.

Our trusted analyst forecasts come from Ovum, Ookla Speedtest. This section of the report focuses on four strategic areas of digital development: applications, security, infrastructure transformation, and empowerment of employees and teams.

These areas align to the multi-domain architectural challenges and opportunities that many global organizations are trying to address across their access, WAN wide area network , and data center domains. Curated perspectives, insights and analysis from syndicated analyst firms Gartner, IDC, et al. Several interactive tools are available to help you create custom highlights and forecast charts by region, by country, by application, and by end-user segment refer to the Cisco Annual Internet Report Highlights tool.

Inquiries can be directed to ask-ciscoair cisco. You can also questions and interact with the analysts via our external community page. Global Internet adoption and devices and connection Internet users Nearly two-thirds of the global population will have Internet access by Devices and connections The number of devices connected to IP networks will be more than three times the global population by Internet of Things IoT by application Within the M2M connections category which is also referred to as IoT , connected home applications will have the largest share and connected car will be the fastest growing application type.

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