Cisco sda software upgrades

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Software-Defined Access (SD-Access) helps organizations enable policy-based network automation by automating user and device policy, aiding onboarding. Cisco Software-Defined Access Compatibility Matrix · Select Deployment · New Deployment · New Cisco SD-Access Compatibility Matrix · Upgrade · Upgrade Cisco SD-. Click Choose File to navigate to a software image or software image update stored locally or enter the image URL to specify an HTTP or FTP. BUILD HOME FTP SERVER FILEZILLA Лотки пластмассовые с 30 тара 60. Ящики складские, контейнеры на колесах для перевозки пищевой. Бутыли ведра также аксессуары 2-ух.

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Cisco SD-Access Wireless Enhancements

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Now you can provide access to any application--without compromising on security--while gaining awareness of what is hitting your network.

Cisco network magic software Devices connected to such cisco sda software upgrades maintain interconnectivity to the devices and services that are yet to be migrated over, while providing the benefits of the fabric. If traditional, default forwarding logic is used to reach the Data Center prefixes, the fabric edge nodes would send the traffic to the external border nodes who would then hairpin the traffic to the internal border nodes resulting in an inefficient traffic forwarding. While a single seed can be defined, two seed devices are recommended. Hospitals are required to have HIPAA-compliant wired cisco sda software upgrades wireless networks that can provide complete and constant visibility into their network traffic to protect sensitive medical devices such as servers for electronic medical records, vital signs monitors, or nurse workstations so that a malicious device cannot compromise the networks. The peer device secondary seed can be automated and discovered through the LAN Automation process.
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Cisco sda software upgrades This leads to duplication of network hardware procurement and inconsistency in management practices. What is network policy? This is done with SD-Access only in the cisco sda software upgrades and distribution layers, with cisco sda software upgrades switches acting as fabric edge nodes. First, it establishes trust by using AI Endpoint Analytics to profile all connecting endpoints, and Group-Based Policy Analytics to help define access policies. A fabric site is composed of a unique set of devices operating in a fabric role along with the intermediate nodes used to connect those devices. Only the address of the RP, along with enabling PIM, is needed to begin receiving multicast streams from active sources.
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Lake thunderbird norman ok By default, users, devices, and applications in the same VN cisco sda software upgrades communicate with each other. Platform capabilities to consider in an SD-Access deployment:. Cisco SD-Access gives Rjynfrns vnc server time back by dramatically reducing the time it takes to manage and secure your network and improving the overall end-user experience. Each Hello packet is processed by the routing protocol adding to the overhead and rapid Hello messages creates an inefficient balance between liveliness and churn. Help secure your organization and achieve regulatory compliance with end-to-end segmentation. Hover your mouse over the info icon to view the validation criteria and the CLI commands used for validation.
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Identity Services Engine. As described later in the Fabric Roles section, the wired and wireless device platforms are utilized to create the elements of a fabric site. Tech tip. Cisco DNA begins with the foundation of a digital-ready infrastructure that includes routers, switches, access-points, and Wireless LAN controllers. SD-Access is part of this software and is used to design, provision, apply policy, and facilitate the creation of an intelligent wired and wireless campus network with assurance.

In addition to automation for SD-Access, Cisco DNA Center provides applications to improve an organization's efficiency such as network device health dashboards. Cisco DNA Center centrally manages major configuration and operations workflow areas. Cisco Identity Services Engine ISE is a secure network access platform enabling increased management awareness, control, and consistency for users and devices accessing an organization's network.

ISE is an integral and mandatory component of SD-Access for implementing network access control policy. ISE performs policy implementation, enabling dynamic mapping of users and devices to scalable groups, and simplifying end-to-end security policy enforcement. Within ISE, users and devices are shown in a simple and flexible interface. Scalable Group Tags are a metadata value that is transmitted in the header of fabric-encapsulated packets.

This simplifies end-to-end security policy management and enforcement at a greater scale than traditional network policy implementations relying on IP access-lists. A Cisco ISE node can provide various services based on the persona that it assumes.

Personas are simply the services and specific feature set provided by a given ISE node. It handles all system-related configurations that are related to functionality such as authentication, authorization, and auditing. This persona provides advanced monitoring and troubleshooting tools that used to effectively manage the network and resources. A node with this persona aggregates and correlates the data that it collects to provide meaningful information in the form of reports.

This persona evaluates the policies and makes all the decisions. Typically, there would be more than one PSN in a distributed deployment. All Policy Service nodes that reside in the same high-speed Local Area Network LAN or behind a load balancer can be grouped together to form a node group. The pxGrid framework can also be used to exchange policy and configuration data between nodes like sharing tags and policy objects.

ISE supports standalone and distributed deployment models. Multiple, distributed nodes can be deployed together to provide failover resiliency and scale. The range of deployment options allows support for hundreds of thousands of endpoint devices. Policy Plane — Cisco TrustSec. There are four key technologies, that make up the SD-Access solution, each performing distinct activities in different network planes of operation: control plane, data plane, policy plane, and management plane.

In many networks, the IP address associated with an endpoint defines both its identity and its location in the network. In these networks, the IP address is used for both network layer identification who the device is on the network and as a network layer locator where the device is at in the network or to which device it is connected.

This is commonly referred to as addressing following topology. The LISP control plane messaging protocol is an architecture to communicate and exchange the relationship between these two namespaces. Simultaneously, the decoupling of the endpoint identity from its location allows addresses in the same IP subnetwork to be available behind multiple Layer 3 gateways in disparate network locations such as multiple wiring closets , versus the one-to-one coupling of IP subnetwork with network gateway in traditional networks.

This provides the benefits of a Layer 3 Routed Access network, described in a later section , without the requirement of a subnetwork to only exist in a single wiring closet. Instead of a typical traditional routing-based decision, the fabric devices query the control plane node to determine the routing locator associated with the destination address EID-to-RLOC mapping and use that RLOC information as the traffic destination.

In case of a failure to resolve the destination routing locator, the traffic is sent to the default fabric border node. VXLAN is an encapsulation technique for data packets. When encapsulation is added to these data packets, a tunnel network is created. Tunneling encapsulates data packets from one protocol inside a different protocol and transports the original data packets, unchanged, across the network.

A lower-layer or same-layer protocol from the OSI model can be carried through this tunnel creating an overlay. In SD-Access, this overlay network is referred to as the fabric. It provides a way to carry lower-layer data across the higher Layer 3 infrastructure. Unlike routing protocol tunneling methods, VXLAN preserves the original Ethernet header from the original frame sent from the endpoint.

This allows for the creation of an overlay at Layer 2 and at Layer 3 depending on the needs of the original communication. Any encapsulation method is going to create additional MTU maximum transmission unit overhead on the original packet. At minimum, these extra headers add 50 bytes of overhead to the original packet. An access policy elsewhere in the network is then enforced based on this tag information. An SGT is a form of metadata and is a bit value assigned by ISE in an authorization policy when user, device, or application connects to the network.

In the policy plane, the alternative forwarding attributes the SGT value and VRF values are encoded into the header, and carried across the overlay. Cisco DNA Center is a foundational component of SD-Access, enabling automation of device deployments and configurations into the network to provide the speed and consistency required for operational efficiency.

Through its automation capabilities, the control plane, data plane, and policy plane for the fabric devices is easily, seamlessly, and consistently deployed. Through Assurance, visibility and context are achieved for both the infrastructure devices and endpoints. A full understanding of LISP and VXLAN is not required to deploy the fabric in SD-Access, nor is there a requirement to know the details of how to configure each individual network component and feature to create the consistent end-to-end behavior offered by SD-Access.

Cisco DNA Center is an intuitive, centralized management system used to design, provision, and apply policy across the wired and wireless SD-Access network. What is a Fabric? Underlay Network. Overlay Network. Shared Services. The SD-Access architecture is supported by fabric technology implemented for the campus, enabling the use of virtual networks overlay networks running on a physical network underlay network creating alternative topologies to connect devices.

This section describes and defines the word fabric , discusses the SD-Access fabric underlay and overlay network, and introduces shared services which are a shared set of resources accessed by devices in the overlay. This section provides an introduction for these fabric -based network terminologies used throughout the rest of the guide.

Design consideration for these are covered in a later section. A fabric is simply an overlay network. Overlays are created through encapsulation, a process which adds additional header s to the original packet or frame. An overlay network creates a logical topology used to virtually connect devices that are built over an arbitrary physical underlay topology.

In an idealized, theoretical network, every device would be connected to every other device. In this way, any connectivity or topology imagined could be created. While this theoretical network does not exist, there is still a technical desire to have all these devices connected to each other in a full mesh. This is where the term fabric comes from: it is a cloth where everything is connected together. In networking, an overlay or tunnel provides this logical full-mesh connection.

The underlay network is defined by the physical switches and routers that are used to deploy the SD-Access network. All network elements of the underlay must establish IP connectivity via the use of a routing protocol. Instead of using arbitrary network topologies and protocols, the underlay implementation for SD-Access uses a well-designed Layer 3 foundation inclusive of the campus edge switches which is known as a Layer 3 Routed Access design.

This ensures performance, scalability, and resiliency, and deterministic convergence of the network. In SD-Access, the underlay switches edge nodes support the physical connectivity for users and endpoints. However, end-user subnets and endpoints are not part of the underlay network—they are part of the automated overlay network. An overlay network is created on top of the underlay network through virtualization virtual networks. The data plane traffic and control plane signaling are contained within each virtualized network, maintaining isolation among the networks and an independence from the underlay network.

Multiple overlay networks can run across the same underlay network through virtualization. In SD-Access, the user-defined overlay networks are provisioned as a virtual routing and forwarding VRF instances that provide separation of routing tables. Layer 2 overlay services emulate a LAN segment to transport Layer 2 frames by carrying a subnet over the Layer 3 underlay as shown in Figure 5. Layer 3 overlays abstract the IP-based connectivity from the physical connectivity as shown in Figure 6.

This can allow multiple IP networks to be part of each virtual network. Each Layer 3 overlay, its routing tables, and its associated control planes are completely isolated from each other. The following diagram shows an example of two subnets that are part of the overlay network. The subnets stretch across physically separated Layer 3 devices—two edge nodes. The RLOC interfaces, or Loopback 0 interfaces in SD-Access, are the only underlay routable address that are required to establish connectivity between endpoints of the same or different subnet within the same VN.

Networks need some form of shared services that can be reused across multiple virtual networks. It is important that those shared services are deployed correctly to preserve the isolation between different virtual networks accessing those services.

The use of a VRF-Aware Peer directly attached outside of the fabric provides a mechanism for route leaking of shared services prefixes across multiple networks, and the use of firewalls provides an additional layer of security and monitoring of traffic between virtual networks. Examples of shared services include:. Special capabilities such as advanced DHCP scope selection criteria, multiple domains, and support for overlapping address space are some of the capabilities required to extend the services beyond a single network.

If firewall policies need to be unique for each virtual network, the use of a multi-context firewall is recommended. Control Plane Node. Edge Node. Intermediate Node. Border Node. Fabric in a Box. Extended Node. Fabric WLC. Fabric-Mode Access Point. SD-Access Embedded Wireless. Transit and Peer Networks.

Transit Control Plane Node. Fabric Domain. Fabric Site. The wired and wireless device platforms are utilized to create the elements of a fabric site. A fabric site is defined as location that has its own control plane node and an edge node. A fabric border node is required to allow traffic to egress and ingress the fabric site.

A fabric role is an SD-Access software construct running on physical hardware. These software constructs were designed with modularity and flexibility in mind. For example, a device can run a single role, or a device can also run multiple roles. Care should be taken to provision the SD-Access fabric roles in the same way the underlying network architecture is built: distribution of function.

Separating roles onto different devices provides the highest degree of availability, resilience, deterministic convergence, and scale. This tells the requesting device to which fabric node an endpoint is connected and thus where to direct traffic. The edge nodes must be implemented using a Layer 3 routed access design. The provide the following fabric functions:. After an endpoint is detected by the edge node, it is added to a local database called the EID-table.

Once the host is added to this local database, the edge node also issues a LISP map-register message to inform the control plane node of the endpoint so the central HTDB is updated. Traffic is either sent to another edge node or to the border node, depending on the destination. When fabric encapsulated traffic is received for the endpoint, such as from a border node or from another edge node, it is de-encapsulated and sent to that endpoint.

This encapsulation and de-encapsulation of traffic enables the location of an endpoint to change, as the traffic can be encapsulated towards different edge nodes in the network, without the endpoint having to change its address. Intermediate nodes are part of the Layer 3 network used for interconnections among the devices operating in a fabric role such as the interconnections between border nodes and edge nodes.

These interconnections are created in the Global Routing Table on the devices and is also known as the underlay network. For example, if a three-tier campus deployment provisions the core switches as the border nodes and the access switches as the edge nodes, the distribution switches are the intermediate nodes.

The number of intermediate nodes is not limited to a single layer of devices. For example, borders nodes may be provisioned on an enterprise edge routers resulting in the intermediate nodes being the core and distribution layers as shown in Figure 9. Intermediate nodes simply route and transport IP traffic between the devices operating in fabric roles. VXLAN adds 50 bytes to the original packet. The common denominator and recommended MTU value available on devices operating in a fabric role is Network should have a minimum starting MTU of at least bytes to support the fabric overlay.

MTU values between and are supported along with MTU values larger than though there may be additional configuration and limitations based on the original packet size. Devices in the same routing domain and Layer 2 domain should be configured with a consistent MTU size to support routing protocol adjacencies and packet forwarding without fragmentation. The fabric border nodes serve as the gateway between the SD-Access fabric site and the networks external to the fabric.

The border node is responsible for network virtualization interworking and SGT propagation from the fabric to the rest of the network. This is also necessary so that traffic from outside of the fabric destined for endpoints in the fabric is attracted back to the border nodes.

Also possible is the internal border node which registers known networks IP subnets with the fabric control plane node. Packets and frames sourced from inside the fabric and destined outside of the fabric are de-encapsulated by the border node.

This is similar to the behavior used by an edge node except, rather than being connected to endpoints, the border node connects a fabric site to a non-fabric network. Fabric in a Box is an SD-Access construct where the border node, control plane node, and edge node are running on the same fabric node.

This may be a single switch, a switch with hardware stacking, or a StackWise Virtual deployment. SD-Access Extended Nodes provide the ability to extend the enterprise network by providing connectivity to non-carpeted spaces of an enterprise — commonly called the Extended Enterprise. This allows network connectivity and management of IoT devices and the deployment of traditional enterprise end devices in outdoor and non-carpeted environments such as distribution centers, warehouses, or Campus parking lots.

This feature extends consistent, policy-based automation to Cisco Industrial Ethernet, Catalyst CX Compact, and Digital Building Series switches and enables segmentation for user endpoints and IoT devices connected to these nodes. Using Cisco DNA Center automation, switches in the extended node role are onboarded to their connected edge node using an Extended nodes are discovered using zero-touch Plug-and-Play. Extended nodes offer a Layer 2 port extension to a fabric edge node while providing segmentation and group-based polices to the endpoints connected to these switches.

Endpoints, including fabric-mode APs, can connect directly to the extended node. Additional design details and supported platforms are discussed in Extended Node Design section below. Fabric WLCs provide additional services for fabric integration such as registering MAC addresses of wireless clients into the host tracking database of the fabric control plane nodes during wireless client join events and supplying fabric edge node RLOC-association updates to the HTDB during client roam events.

From a CAPWAP control plane perspective, AP management traffic is generally lightweight, and it is the client data traffic that is generally the larger bandwidth consumer. Wireless standards have allowed larger and larger data rates for wireless clients, resulting in more and more client data that is tunneled back to the WLC. The requires a larger WLC with multiple high-bandwidth interfaces to support the increase in client traffic.

In non-fabric wireless deployments, wired and wireless traffic have different enforcement points in the network. Quality of service and security are addressed by the WLC when it bridges the wireless traffic onto the wired network. For wired traffic, enforcement is addressed by the first-hop access layer switch. This paradigm shifts entirely with SD-Access Wireless. Data traffic from the wireless endpoints is tunneled to the first-hop fabric edge node where security and policy can be applied at the same point as with wired traffic.

Typically, fabric WLCs connect to a shared services network though a distribution block or data center network that is connected outside the fabric and fabric border, and the WLC management IP address exists in the global routing table. This avoids the need for route leaking or fusion routing a multi-VRF device selectively sharing routing information to establish connectivity between the WLCs and the APs.

Each fabric site must have a WLC unique to that site. Further latency details are covered in the section below. Strategies on connecting the fabric to shared services and details on route leaking and fusion routing are discussed in the External Connectivity and VRF-Aware Peer sections below. Fabric access points operate in local mode.

This generally means that the WLC is deployed in the same physical site as the access points. If this latency requirement is meant through dedicated dark fiber or other very low latency circuits between the physical sites and the WLCs deployed physically elsewhere such as in a centralized data center, WLCs and APs may be in different physical locations as shown later in Figure A maximum RTT of 20ms between these devices is crucial.

Fabric-mode APs continue to support the same wireless media services that traditional APs support such as applying AVC, quality of service QoS , and other wireless policies. They must be directly connected to the fabric edge node or extended node switch in the fabric site. For their data plane, Fabric APs establish a VXLAN tunnel to their first-hop fabric edge switch where wireless client traffic is terminated and placed on the wired network.

Fabric APs are considered a special case wired host. As a wired host , access points have a dedicated EID-space and are registered with the control plane node. It is a common EID-space prefix space and common virtual network for all fabric APs within a fabric site.

The assignment to this overlay virtual network allows management simplification by using a single subnet to cover the AP infrastructure at a fabric site. To enable wireless controller functionality without a hardware WLC in distributed branches and small campuses, the Cisco Catalyst Embedded Wireless Controller is available for Catalyst Series switches as a software package on switches running in Install mode.

The wireless control plane of the embedded controller operates like a hardware WLC. Fabric in a Box deployments operating in StackWise Virtual do not support the embedded wireless controller functionality and should use a hardware-based or virtual WLC Catalyst CL. They are an SD-Access construct that defines how Cisco DNA Center will automate the border node configuration for the connections between fabric sites or between a fabric site and the external world.

Once in native IP, they are forwarded using traditional routing and switching modalities. IP-based transits are provisioned with VRF-lite to connect to the upstream device. Transit control planes nodes are a fabric role construct supported in SD-Access for Distributed Campus. It operates in the same manner as a site-local control plane node except it services the entire fabric. Transit control plane nodes are only required when using SD-Access transits.

Each fabric site will have their own site-local control plane nodes for intra-site communication, and the entire domain will use the transit control plane nodes for inter-site communication. Transit control plane nodes provide the following functions:.

This creates an aggregate HTDB for all fabric sites connected to the transit. It is an organization scope that consists of multiple fabric sites and their associated transits. The concept behind a fabric domain is to show certain geographic portions of the network together on the screen. For example, an administrator managing a fabric site in San Jose, California, USA and another fabric site in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, which are approximately 3, miles 4, kilometers apart, would likely place these fabric sites in different fabric domains unless they were connected to each other with the same transit.

Figure 13 shows three fabric domains. The large text Fabrics represents fabric domains and not fabric sites which are shown Figure Both East Coast and West Coast have a number of fabric sites, three 3 and fourteen 14 respectively, in their domain along with a number of control plane nodes and borders nodes. It is not uncommon to have hundreds of sites under a single fabric domain. A fabric site is composed of a unique set of devices operating in a fabric role along with the intermediate nodes used to connect those devices.

At minimum, a fabric site must have a control plane node and an edge node, and to allow communication to other destinations outside of the fabric site, a border node. Fourteen 14 fabric sites have been created. Each site has its own independent set of control plane nodes, border nodes, and edge nodes along with a WLC. LAN Design Principles.

Device Role Design Principles. Feature-Specific Design Requirements. Wireless Design. External Connectivity. Security Policy Considerations. Multidimensional Considerations. Any successful design or system is based on a foundation of solid design theory and principles. Designing an SD-Access network or fabric site as a component of the overall enterprise LAN design model is no different than designing any large networking system. The use of a guiding set of fundamental engineering principles ensures that the design provides a balance of availability, security, flexibility, and manageability required to meet current and future technology needs.

This section provides design guidelines that are built upon these balanced principles to allow an SD-Access network architect to build the fabric using next-generation products and technologies. These principles allow for simplified application integration and the network solutions to be seamlessly built on a modular, extensible, and highly-available foundation design that can provide continuous, secure, and deterministic network operations.

This section will begin by discussing LAN design principles, discusses design principles covering specific device roles, feature-specific design considerations, wireless design, external connectivity, security policy design, and multidimensional considerations. Underlay Network Design. Overlay Network Design. Shared Services Design. The following LAN design principles apply to networks of any size and scale. This section looks at underlay network, overlay network, shared services and services blocks, DHCP in the Fabric along with latency requirements for the network.

Layer 3 Routed Access Introduction. Enterprise Campus Architecture. About Layer 3 Routed Access. Having a well-designed underlay network ensures the stability, performance, and efficient utilization of the SD-Access network. Whether using LAN Automation or deploying the network manually, the underlay networks for the fabric have the following general design requirements:. Enabling a campus and branch wide MTU of ensures that Ethernet jumbo frames can be transported without fragmentation inside the fabric.

Combining point-to-point links with the recommended physical topology design provides fast convergence in the event of a link failure. The fast convergence is a benefit of quick link failure detection triggering immediate use of alternate topology entries preexisting in the routing and forwarding table. Implement the point-to-point links using optical technology as optical fiber interfaces are not subject to the same electromagnetic interference EMI as copper links.

Copper interfaces can be used, though optical ones are preferred. ECMP-aware routing protocols should be used to take advantage of the parallel-cost links and to provide redundant forwarding paths for resiliency. Routing protocols use the absence of Hello packets to determine if an adjacent neighbor is down commonly called Hold Timer or Dead Timer. Thus, the ability to detect liveliness in a neighbor is based on the frequency of Hello packets.

Each Hello packet is processed by the routing protocol adding to the overhead and rapid Hello messages creates an inefficient balance between liveliness and churn. BFD provides low-overhead, sub-second detection of failures in the forwarding path between devices and can be set a uniform rate across a network using different routing protocols that may have variable Hello timers.

NSF-aware IGP routing protocols should be used to minimize the amount of time that a network is unavailable following a switchover. These addresses also be propagated throughout the fabric site. Reachability between loopback address RLOCs cannot use the default route.

Although there are many alternative routing protocols, the IS-IS routing protocol offers operational advantages such as neighbor establishment without IP protocol dependencies, peering capability using loopback addresses, and agnostic treatment of IPv4, IPv6, and non-IP traffic. Manual underlays are also supported and allow variations from the automated underlay deployment for example, a different IGP could be chosen , though the underlay design principles still apply.

For campus designs requiring simplified configuration, common end-to-end troubleshooting tools, and the fastest convergence, a design using Layer 3 switches in the access layer routed access in combination with Layer 3 switching at the distribution layer and core layers provides the most rapid convergence of data and control plane traffic flows.

Enterprise Campus Architecture Introduction. Hierarchical network models are the foundation for modern network architectures. This allows network systems, both large and small, simple and complex, to be designed and built using modularized components. These components are then assembled in a structured and hierarchical manner while allowing each piece component, module, and hierarchical point in the network to be designed with some independence from overall design. Modules or blocks can operate semi-independently of other elements, which in turn provides higher availability to the entire system.

By dividing the Campus system into subsystems and assembling them into a clear order, a higher degree of stability, flexibility, and manageability is achieved for the individual pieces of the network and the campus deployment as a whole.

These hierarchical and modular networks models are referred to as the Cisco Enterprise Architecture Model and have been the foundation for building highly available, scalable, and deterministic networks for nearly two decades. The Enterprise Architecture Model separates the network into different functional areas called modules or blocks designed with hierarchical structures.

The Enterprise Campus is traditionally defined with a three-tier hierarchy composed of the Core, Distribution, and Access Layers. In smaller networks, two-tiers are common with core and distribution collapsed into a single layer collapsed core. The key idea is that each element in the hierarchy has a specific set of functions and services that it offers.

The same key idea is referenced later in the fabric control plane node and border node design section. The access layer represents the network edge where traffic enters or exits the campus network towards users, devices, and endpoints. The primary function of an access layer switch is to provide network access to the users and endpoint devices such as PCs, printers, access points, telepresence units, and IP phones. The distribution layer is the interface between the access and the core providing multiple, equal cost paths to the core, intelligent switching and routing, and aggregation of Layer 2 and Layer 3 boundaries.

The Core layer is the backbone interconnecting all the layers and ultimately providing access to the compute and data storage services located in the data center and access to other services and modules throughout the network. It ties the Campus together with high bandwidth, low latency, and fast convergence.

For additional details on the Enterprise Campus Architecture Model, please see:. In typical hierarchical design, the access layer switch is configured as a Layer 2 switch that forwards traffic on high speed trunk ports to the distribution switches. The distribution switches are configured to support both Layer 2 switching on their downstream trunks and Layer 3 switching on their upstream ports towards the core of the network.

The function of the distribution switch in this design is to provide boundary functions between the bridged Layer 2 portion of the campus and the routed Layer 3 portion, including support for the default gateway, Layer 3 policy control, and all required multicast services. Layer 2 access networks provide the flexibility to allow applications that require Layer 2 connectivity to extend across multiple wiring closets.

This design does come with the overhead of Spanning-Tree Protocol STP to ensure loops are not created when there are redundant Layer 2 paths in the network. The stability of and availability for the access switches is layered on multiple protocol interactions in a Layer 2 switched access deployment. Trunking protocols ensure VLANs are spanned and forwarded to the proper switches throughout the system. While all of this can come together in an organized, deterministic, and accurate way, there is much overhead involved both in protocols and administration, and ultimately, spanning-tree is the protocol pulling all the desperate pieces together.

All the other protocols and their interactions rely on STP to provide a loop-free path within the redundant Layer 2 links. If a convergence problem occurs in STP, all the other technologies listed above can be impacted. The hierarchical Campus, whether Layer 2 switched or Layer 3 routed access, calls for a full mesh equal-cost routing paths leveraging Layer 3 forwarding in the core and distribution layers of the network to provide the most reliable and fastest converging design for those layers.

An alternative to Layer 2 access model described above is to move the Layer 3 demarcation boundary to the access layer. Layer 2 uplink trunks on the Access switches are replaced with Layer 3 point-to-point routed links. This brings the advantages of equal cost path routing to the Access layer. Using routing protocols for redundancy and failover provides significant convergence improvement over spanning-tree protocol used in Layer 2 designs. Traffic is forwarded with both entries using equal-cost multi-path ECMP routing.

In the event of a failure of an adjacent link or neighbor, the switch hardware and software immediately remove the forwarding entry associated with the lost neighbor. However, the switch still has a remaining valid route and associated CEF forwarding entry. With an active and valid route, traffic is still forwarded.

The result is a simpler overall network configuration and operation, dynamic load balancing, faster convergence, and a single set of troubleshooting tools such as ping and traceroute. Layer 3 routed access is defined by Layer 3 point-to-point routed links between devices in the Campus hierarchy. SVIs and trunk ports between the layers still have an underlying reliance on Layer 2 protocol interactions.

SD-Access networks start with the foundation of a well-design, highly available Layer 3 routed access foundation. For optimum convergence at the core and distribution layer, build triangles, not squares, to take advantage of equal-cost redundant paths for the best deterministic convergence. Square topologies should be avoided.

As illustrated in Figure 16, Core switch peer devices should be cross linked to each other. Distribution switches within the same distribution block should be crosslinked to each other and connected to each core switch.

Access switches should be connected to each distribution switch within a distribution block, though they do not need to be cross-linked to each other. The interior gateway routing IGP routing protocol should be fully featured and support Non-Stop Forwarding, Bidirectional Forwarding Detection, and equal cost multi-path.

Point-to-point links should be optimized with BFD, a hard-coded carrier-delay and load-interval, enabled for multicast forwarding, and CEF should be optimized to avoid polarization and under-utilized redundant paths. It is the virtualization of two physical switches into a single logical switch from a control and management plane perspective.

It provides the potential to eliminate spanning tree, first hop redundancy protocol needs, along with multiple touch points to configure those technologies. Using Multichassis EtherChannel MEC , bandwidth can be effectively doubled with minimized convergence timers using stateful and graceful recovery. In traditional networks, StackWise virtual is positioned in the distribution layer and in collapsed core environments to help VLANs span multiple access layer switches, to provide flexibility for applications and services requiring Layer 2 adjacency, and to provide Layer 2 redundancy.

The distribution and collapsed core layers are no longer required to service the Layer 2 adjacency and Layer 2 redundancy needs with the boundary shifted. In a Layer 3 routed access environment, two separate, physical switches are best used in all situations except those that may require Layer 2 redundancy. For example, at the access layer, if physical hardware stacking is not available in the deployed platform, StackWise Virtual can be used to provide Layer 2 redundancy to the downstream endpoints.

StackWise Virtual can provide multiple, redundant 1- and Gigabit Ethernet connections common on downstream devices. In the SD-Access fabric, the overlay networks are used for transporting user traffic across the fabric. The fabric encapsulation also carries scalable group information used for traffic segmentation inside the overlay VNs. Consider the following in the design when deploying virtual networks:. In general, if devices need to communicate with each other, they should be placed in the same virtual network.

If communication is required between different virtual networks, use an external firewall or other device to enable inter-VN communication. Virtual Network provides the same behavior and isolation as VRFs. Using SGTs also enables scalable deployment of policy without having to do cumbersome updates for these policies based on IP addresses. Subnets are sized according to the services that they support, versus being constrained by the location of a gateway.

Enabling the optional broadcast flooding Layer 2 flooding feature can limit the subnet size based on the additional bandwidth and endpoint processing requirements for the traffic mix within a specific deployment. Avoid overlapping address space so that the additional operational complexity of adding a network address translation NAT device is not required for shared services communication.

Services Block Design. Shared Services Routing Table. As campus network designs utilize more application-based services, migrate to controller-based WLAN environments, and continue to integrate more sophisticated Unified Communications, it is essential to integrate these services into the campus smoothly while providing for the appropriate degree of operational change management and fault isolation.

And this must be done while continuing to maintain a flexible and scalable design. A services block provides for this through the centralization of servers and services for the Enterprise Campus. The services block serves a central purpose in the campus design: it isolates or separates specific functions into dedicated services switches allowing for cleaner operational processes and configuration management.

It also provides a centralized location for applying network security services and policies such as NAC, IPS, or firewall. The services block is not necessarily a single entity. There might be multiple services blocks depending on the scale of the network, the level of geographic redundancy required, and other operational and physical factors. One services block may service an entire deployment, or each area, building, or site may have its own block. The services block does not just mean putting more boxes in the network.

Services blocks are delineated by the services block switch. The goal of the services block switch is to provide Layer 3 access to the remainder of the enterprise network and Layer 2 redundancy for the servers, controllers, and applications in the services block. This allows the services block to keep its VLANs distinct from the remainder of the network stack such as the access layer switches which will have different VLANs.

These Ethernet connections should be distributed among different modular line cards or switch stack members as much as possible to ensure that the failure of a single line card or switch does not result in total failure of the services to remainder of the network. Terminating on different modules within a single Catalyst and Nexus modular switch or different switch stack members provides redundancy and ensures that connectivity between the services block switch and the service block resources are maintained in the rare event of a failure.

The key advantage of using link aggregation is design performance, reliability, and simplicity. With the Ethernet bundle comprising up to eight links, link aggregation provides very high traffic bandwidth between the controller, servers, applications, and the remainder of the network. If any of the individual ports fail, traffic is automatically migrated to one of the other ports.

If at least one port is functioning, the system continues to operate, remain connected to the network, and is able to continue to send and receive data. When connecting wireless controllers to the services block using link aggregation, one of three approaches can be used:.

The links are spread across the physical switches. This is the recommended option. This is a variation of first option and is recommended only if the existing physical wiring will not allow for Option 1. If the survivability requirements for these locations necessitate network access, connectivity, and services in the event of egress circuit failure or unavailability, then a services block should be deployed at each physical location with these requirements.

Commonly, medium to large deployments will utilize their own services block for survivability, and smaller locations will use centralized, rather than local services. In very small sites, small branches, and remote sites, services are commonly deployed and subsequently accessed from a central location, generally a headquarters HQ.

However, due to the latency requirements for Fabric APs which operate in local mode, WLCs generally need to be deployed at each location. For these very small or branch locations, a services block may not be needed if the only local service is the wireless LAN controller. Some deployments may be able to take advantage of either virtual or switch-embedded Catalyst WLC as discussed in the Embedded Wireless section.

A services block is the recommended design, even with a single service such as a WLC. Once the services block physical design is determined, its logical design should be considered next. If deployed in a VRF, this routing table should be dedicated only to these shared services. Discussed in detail later in the External Connectivity section, the endpoint prefix-space in the fabric site will be present on the border nodes for advertisement to the external world. However, these prefixes will be in a VRF table, not the global routing table.

This later section discussion options on connecting the border node to shared services, Internet, and outside the fabric. The alternative approach, shared services in the GRT, requires a different approach to leak routes for access to shared services.

The process still requires the same handoff components to the external entity to the border node, though with slightly more touch points. These begin with IP prefix-list for each VN in the fabric that references each of the associated subnets. A route-map is created to match on each prefix-list. Finally, the VRF configuration imports and exports routes that are filtered based on these route-maps.

While the second approach, shared services in GRT, may have more configuration elements, it also provides the highest degree of granularity. Specific routes can be selectively and systematically leaked from the global routing table to the fabric VNs without having to maintain a dedicated VRF for shared services. Both approaches are supported, although the underlying decision for the routing table used by shared services should be based on the entire network, not just the SD-Access fabric sites.

SD-Access does not require any specific changes to existing infrastructure services, because the fabric nodes have capabilities to handle the DHCP relay functionality differences that are present in fabric deployments. In a typical DHCP relay design, the unique gateway IP address determines the subnet address assignment for an endpoint in addition to the location to which the DHCP server should direct the offered address. In a fabric overlay network, that gateway is not unique—the same Anycast IP address exists across all fabric edge nodes within the fabric site.

It is a containe r option which contains two parts two sub-options :. The border node references the embedded option 82 information and directs the DHCP offer back to the correct fabric edge destination. Modern Microsoft Windows Servers such as R2 and beyond generally adhere to this standard. Latency in the network is an important consideration for performance, and the RTT between Cisco DNA Center and any network device it manages must be taken into strict account.

The maximum supported latency is ms RTT. Latency between ms and ms is supported, although longer execution times could be experienced for certain functions including Inventory Collection, Fabric Provisioning, SWIM, and other processes that involve interactions with the managed devices. Roles and Capabilities. This section discusses design principles for specific SD-Access devices roles including edge nodes, control plane nodes, border nodes, Fabric in a Box, and extended nodes.

This section concludes with device platform role and capabilities discussion and Cisco DNA Center High Availability design considerations. In SD-Access, fabric edge nodes represent the access layer in a two or three-tier hierarchy. The access layer is the edge of the campus. It is the place where end devices attach to the wired portion of the campus network.

The edge nodes also represent the place where devices that extend the network connectivity out one more layer connect. These include devices such as IP phones, access points, and extended nodes. The access layer provides the intelligent demarcation between the network infrastructure and the devices that leverage that infrastructure.

As such it provides a trust boundary for QoS, security, and policy. It is the first layer of defense in the network security architecture, and the first point of negotiation between end devices and the network infrastructure. To meet network application and end-user demands, Cisco Catalyst switching platforms operating as a fabric edge node do not simply switch packets but provide intelligent services to various types of endpoints at the network edge.

By building intelligence into these access layer switches, it allows them to operate more efficiently, optimally, and securely. The edge node design is intended to address the network scalability and availability for the IT-managed voice, video, and wireless communication devices along with the wide variety of possible wired endpoint device types.

Edge nodes should maintain a maximum oversubscription ratio to the distribution or collapsed core layers. The higher the oversubscription ratio, the higher the probability that temporary or transient congestion of the uplink may occur if multiple devices transmit or receive simultaneously. Uplinks should be minimum of 10 Gigabit Ethernet and should be connected to multiple upstream peers. As new devices are deployed with higher power requirements, such as lighting, surveillance cameras, virtual desktop terminals, remote access switches, and APs, the design should have the ability to support power over Ethernet to at least 60W per port, offered with Cisco Universal Power Over Ethernet UPOE , and the access layer should also provide PoE perpetual power during switch upgrade and reboot events.

New endpoints and building systems may require even more power, and IEEE Both fixed configuration and modular switches will need multiple power supplies to support 60—90W of power across all PoE-capable ports. This is a central and critical function for the fabric to operate. A control plane node that is overloaded and slow to respond results in application traffic loss on initial packets.

If the fabric control plane is down, endpoints inside the fabric fail to establish communication to remote endpoints that are not cached in the local database. Border nodes and edge nodes register with and use all control plane nodes, so redundant nodes chosen should be of the same type for consistent performance. Cisco AireOS and Catalyst WLCs can communicate with a total of four control plane nodes in a site: two control plane nodes are dedicated to the guest and the other two for non-guest enterprise traffic.

The control plane node advertises the fabric site prefixes learned from the LISP protocol to certain fabric peers, I. Like route reflector RR designs, control plane nodes provide operational simplicity, easy transitions during change windows, and resiliency when deployed in pairs. When the control plane nodes are deployed as dedicated devices, not colocated with other fabric roles, they provide the highest degrees of performance, reliability, and availability. This method also retains an original goal of a Software-Defined Network SDN which is to separate the control function from the forwarding functions.

Control plane nodes may be deployed as either dedicated distributed or non-dedicated colocated devices from the fabric border nodes. In a Fabric in a Box deployment, fabric roles must be colocated on the same device. In Small and Very Small deployment, as discussed in the Reference Models section below, it is not uncommon to deploy a colocated control plane node solution, utilizing the border node and control plane node on the same device.

Deploying a dedicated control plane node has advantages in Medium and Large deployments as it can provide improved network stability both during fabric site change management and in the event that a fabric device becomes unavailable in the network. Dedicated control plane nodes, or off-path control plane nodes, which are not in the data forwarding path, can be conceptualized using the similar DNS Server model.

The control plane node is used for LISP control plane queries, although it is not in the direct data forwarding path between devices. The physical design result is similar to a Router on a Stick topology. The dedicated control plane node should have ample available memory to store all the registered prefixes. Bandwidth is a key factor for communication prefixes to the border node, although throughput is not as key since the control plane nodes are not in the forwarding path.

If the dedicated control plane node is in the data forwarding path, such as at the distribution layer of a three-tier hierarchy, throughput should be considered along with ensuring the node is capable of CPU-intensive registrations along with the other services and connectivity it is providing. One other consideration for separating control plane functionality onto dedicated devices is to support frequent roaming of endpoints across fabric edge nodes.

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